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About the different beauty theories and the role of perception in the judgment about beauty.
Beauty psychology is complex, not only because the concept of beauty has not yet been defined, but also because it is largely true that beauty lies in the eyes of the viewer or how individuals perceive other people or things. Beauty can be attributed to everything that appeals to our senses and all objects that are compatible with our personal preferences. Beauty as we perceive it is largely a projection of our needs and beautiful objects or people simply take care of our idealisations or fantasies and reflect our natural need to relate to everything that is attractive. Human beings are controlled by the senses and we tend to repeat processes or experiences that appeal to the senses, which are harmonious and have structure and form. Beauty appeals to our eyesight, so there is a preference for repeating the experience of beauty.
But how do we perceive beauty and why are some people or objects considered more beautiful than others? Psychological tests have considered symmetry and relationships as extremely important in the perception of beauty. Beauty is also more holistic than specific, because a beautiful object is judged as a whole that is attractive rather than based on its parts. Freudian or psychoanalytical explanations of beauty are scarce, but psychoanalytic concepts can be used to regard our judgment about beauty as a projection or wish-fulfillment. People who are attractive to us are typically the ones we admire or somehow represent our own desires and fantasies. Psychoanalysis can also be compatible with the idea that beauty is preferential perception when there are similarities with a parent. Most people are also considered beautiful if they have baby facial features or a certain innocence in their face. Beauty can also be culturally motivated, so in certain Eastern cultures women with beautiful feet are considered attractive, while in the Victorian era in England women with elegance and grace were the ones with a flexible neck and small waist and modern Western women are judged based on of their breasts, buttocks and lips. The perception of beauty can change and studies have shown that women prefer softer characteristics of men during certain times and more masculine characteristics at other times, depending on the stage of their reproductive cycle. So there are actually several beauty theories that are discussed here one by one.
1. Beauty as symmetry and proportion - As you may have noticed in the case of ancient architectural wonders, symmetry was extremely important. Whether it was the great pyramids in Egypt or the architectural wonders in Greece, symmetry and perfect dimensions played an important role in the history of aesthetics. This whole idea of symmetry also applies to any other object or person we perceive, so a person with a perfectly symmetrical face would also be considered an embodiment of physical perfection. Perfectly shaped and sharp functions are attractive to most people and the most beautiful faces are the ones that have very proportional functions. The same applies to the body and the low waist / hip ratio that forms a lower part of the body in women is found to be more attractive than a straight shape that usually does not indicate fertility. Because people are finally looking for evolutionary benefit, women with a round shape are considered more fertile and therefore more attractive to men. Likewise, men with athletic and muscular bodies are attractive to women. However, many men may not prefer extremely voluptuous or curvy women, just as many women may not prefer extremely muscular men. This suggests that proportion is also about moderation or that people feel more comfortable with certain moderation in what they perceive than excessive and that the perception of beauty may even depend on some sort of social programming.
2. Beauty as a whole instead of sharing - When we consider something beautiful, we usually try to have a broad holistic vision. So if we consider a rose to be beautiful, we are less attentive to each petal and we consider the symmetry of the flower as a whole. Similarly, when we consider the face of a man or a woman, beauty is the composite quality that appears to represent the entire face of the individual rather than the parts or specific characteristics. Our senses prefer a holistic view and perception of things, and therefore a person is only considered attractive or beautiful if all functions together form something very pleasing to the senses.
3. Beauty as projection and wish fulfillment - The perception of beauty is not only a mental process, but also a deeply personal process. If your beloved has blond hair, you will find other blonde people very attractive because you tend to project your inner fantasies onto other people. The & # 39; he & # 39; resembles my beloved or & # 39; she & # 39; resembling my beloved is a common syndrome in our perception of beauty and people who are remotely similar to our friends are suddenly more beautiful to us than others. The same projection applies when selecting a partner that looks like a parent. If a man looks like your father or a family member, he is clearly much more attractive to you than to others. The wish fulfillment theory is equally true and if we want to be like someone in terms of talents or certain qualities, we naturally consider that person to be absolutely perfect and beautiful. Some teenagers may idolize popular actors or actresses and the need to be like they also determines their own perception of beauty.
4. Beauty as innocence and charm - No one can deny that a charming personality with social confidence can be much more attractive than a boring personality. A person who has the inherent capacity to attract individuals with the pure power of personality and presence is considered to be very attractive. Somehow there may be a connection between good looks and social trust and sometimes individuals with good looks are also the most socially accepted and therefore more self-assured. People with baby facial features with high or defined cheekbones and certain innocence on their faces are generally considered to be very attractive by both sexes. Beauty is beneficial with social adaptation and good looking people are also socially successful because they receive support and positive assessment from other people. However, the opposite in also real and sometimes good-looking women and even men can become extremely self-aware and develop insufficient self-confidence. Good looks can become an obstacle in certain cases, because good looking women who are also intelligent can be judged more by their appearance than by their intelligence, and this is sometimes a sad fact in modern society.
5. Beauty as a product of culture and society - This is an accepted fact. The concept of beauty seems to change over time as society changes and the perception of beauty varies in different cultures. Dark skin is considered to be very attractive in western societies and whiter skin is considered attractive in eastern societies, due to the element of novelty in both cases. Women's feet and hair are important characteristics in Eastern cultures, while in the West the lips and hips of women are considered important. Women's breasts are important indicators of beauty in all cultures and men's body and chin or jaw and certain male sharpness are also considered attractive. However, studies have shown that women prefer dominant men during the first follicular stage of their reproductive cycle, but prefer men with softer, more feminine characteristics when in their menstrual and ovulation phases. This can have an evolutionary advantage, because men with a feminine soft nature and faces are considered more stable and family-oriented than men with extreme masculinity or a kind of rough appearance. However, this is too general and there are also individual differences.
Finally, beauty is about how we perceive the outside world and how we integrate our needs and project our wishes onto what we see in the external world. & # 39; Beauty in the eyes of the spectator & # 39; is completely correct from a psychological point of view, since our own preferences change over time and also our desires, aesthetic feeling and beauty experience.